Séjours et Voyages en France

Économie de France
La Défense depuis l'Arc de Triomphe, Paris 6 mars 2015 003.jpg
Devise Euro (EUR, €)
1er janvier – 31 décembre

Organisations professionnelles

UE, OMC et OCDE

Groupe de pays

Statistiques
Population Augmentez 67 012 883 (1 Janvier 2019, provisoire)[3]
PIB
  • Diminuer 2,707 billions de dollars ( nominal; 2019 est.)[4]
  • Augmentez 3 062 billions de dollars ( PPP; 2019 est.)[5]
Classement du PIB

La croissance du PIB

  • 1,7% (2018) 1,3% (2019e)
  • −7,2% (2020e) 4,5% (2021e)[5]

PIB par habitant

  • Diminuer 41 761 $ (nominal ; 2019 est.)[4]
  • Augmentez 47 223 $ (PPP ; 2019 est.)[4]

Classement du PIB par habitant

PIB par secteur

  • 0,3% (2020 est.)[5]
  • 1,3% (2019)[5]
  • 2,1% (2018)[5]
  • 5,5% ou 13,2% avec DOM-TOM
  • Augmentation négative 17,4% menacés de pauvreté ou d’exclusion sociale (2018)[7]
Diminution positive 28,5 faible (2018)[8]

Main-d’oeuvre

  • Augmentez 30,316,795 (2019 )[11]
  • Augmentez 71,3% emploi taux (objectif: 75%; 2018)[12]

Population active par profession

Chômage
  • Augmentation négative 8,7% (avril 2020)[13]
  • Diminution positive 8,1% avec DOM-TOM (T4, 2019)[14]
  • Augmentation négative 20,2% de chômage des jeunes (T4-2019)[15]

Salaire brut moyen

35484 € / 42300 $ par an (2017)[16]
26700 € / 30840 $ par an (2017)[17]

Industries principales

Steady 32nd (très facile, 2020)[18]
Externe
Exportations Augmentez 549,9 milliards de dollars ( 2017 est.)[6]

Exporter des marchandises

machines et équipements, avions, plastiques, produits chimiques, produits pharmaceutiques, fer et acier, boissons

Principaux partenaires à l’exportation

Importations Augmentez 601,7 milliards de dollars ( 2017 est.)[6]

Importer des marchandises

machines et équipements, véhicules, pétrole brut, avions, plastiques, produits chimiques

Principaux partenaires d’importation

  • Augmentez 858,3 milliards de dollars ( 31 décembre 2017 est.)[6]
  • Augmentez À l’étranger: 1,429 $ billion (31 décembre 2017 est.)[6]
Augmentez – 14,83 milliards de dollars (2017 est.)[6]
5 250 milliards de dollars (31 mars 2017)[19]
Finances publiques
  • Steady 98,1% de PIB (2019)[20]
  • Augmentation négative 2380 milliards d’euros (2019)[20]
  • Déficit de 72,8 milliards d’euros (2019)[20]
  • −3,0% du PIB (2019)[20]
Revenus 52,6% du PIB (2019)[20]
Dépenses 55,6% du PIB (2019)[20]
Aide économique donneur: APD, 9,50 milliards de dollars (2016)[21]

Réserves étrangères

Augmentez 156,4 milliards de dollars ( 31 décembre 2017 est.)

le économie de la France est hautement développé et orienté vers le marché libre.[25] Il s’agit de la 7e économie mondiale en termes nominaux en 2019 et de la 10e économie mondiale en chiffres PPA. C’est la 2e plus grande économie de l’Union européenne après l’Allemagne.[26]

La France a une économie diversifiée. L’industrie chimique est un secteur clé pour la France, contribuant au développement d’autres activités manufacturières et contribuant à la croissance économique.[27] L’industrie touristique française est une composante majeure de l’économie, la France étant la destination la plus visitée au monde.[28][29] Sophia Antipolis est le principal pôle technologique de l’économie française. Paris est classée comme la ville la plus élégante du monde, ce qui propulse l’agglomération de l’industrie de la mode.[30] Selon le FMI, en 2018, la France était le 19e pays du monde en termes de PIB par habitant avec 42878 $ par habitant. En 2018, la France était inscrite à l’indice de développement humain des Nations Unies avec une valeur de 0,891 (indiquant un développement humain très élevé) et 21e à l’indice de perception de la corruption en 2018.[31][32] L’OCDE a son siège à Paris, la capitale financière du pays.

L’économie française est entrée plus tard dans la récession de la fin des années 2000 et a semblé la quitter plus tôt que la plupart des économies touchées, ne subissant que les quatre quarts de la contraction.[33] Cependant, la France a connu une croissance stagnante entre 2012 et 2014, avec une croissance de l’économie de 0% en 2012, 0,8% en 2013 et 0,2% en 2014, bien que la croissance se soit accélérée en 2015 avec une croissance de 0,8% et une croissance de 1,1% pour 2016, à une croissance de 2,2% pour 2017 et pour atteindre plus tard 2,1% pour 2018.[34] Selon l’OFCE, le taux de croissance prévu pour 2019 est de 1,3%[35][[référence circulaire].

Les sociétés[[Éditer]

Avec 28 des 500 plus grandes entreprises du monde en 2018, la France se classe 5e du classement Fortune Global 500, derrière les USA, la Chine, le Japon et l’Allemagne

Plusieurs entreprises françaises se classent parmi les plus importantes de leur secteur d’activité comme AXA en assurance et Air France en transport aérien.[36] Le luxe et les biens de consommation sont particulièrement pertinents, L’Oréal étant la plus grande entreprise de cosmétiques au monde tandis que LVMH et Kering sont les deux plus grandes entreprises mondiales de produits de luxe. Dans l’énergie et les services publics, GDF-Suez et EDF figurent parmi les plus grandes sociétés énergétiques au monde, et Areva est une grande société d’énergie nucléaire; Veolia Environnement est la première société mondiale de services environnementaux et de gestion de l’eau; Vinci SA, Bouygues et Eiffage sont de grandes entreprises de construction; Michelin se classe parmi les 3 premiers fabricants de pneus; JCDecaux est la plus grande société de publicité extérieure au monde; BNP Paribas, Credit Agricole et Société Générale se classent parmi les plus importants au monde en termes d’actifs.

Carrefour est le deuxième groupe de distribution au monde en termes de chiffre d’affaires; Total est la quatrième société pétrolière privée au monde; Danone est la cinquième plus grande entreprise alimentaire au monde et le plus grand fournisseur mondial d’eau minérale; Sanofi Aventis est la cinquième plus grande entreprise pharmaceutique au monde; Publicis est la troisième plus grande société de publicité au monde; PSA est le sixième constructeur mondial et le deuxième constructeur automobile en Europe; Accor est le premier groupe hôtelier européen; Alstom est l’un des principaux conglomérats mondiaux du transport ferroviaire.

Montée et déclin du dirigisme[[Éditer]

La France s’est engagée dans un programme de modernisation ambitieux et très réussi sous coordination étatique. Ce programme de dirigisme, principalement mis en œuvre par les gouvernements entre 1944 et 1983, impliquait le contrôle par l’État de certaines industries telles que les transports, l’énergie et les télécommunications ainsi que diverses incitations pour les sociétés privées à fusionner ou à s’engager dans certains projets.

L’élection de 1981 du président François Mitterrand a vu une augmentation de courte durée du contrôle gouvernemental de l’économie, nationalisant de nombreuses industries et banques privées. Cette forme de dirigisme, a été critiqué dès 1982. En 1983, le gouvernement a décidé de renoncer à dirigisme et commencer une ère de rigueur («rigueur») ou de société. En conséquence, le gouvernement s’est largement retiré de l’intervention économique; dirigisme a maintenant essentiellement reculé, bien que certains de ses traits demeurent. L’économie française a grandi et changé sous la direction et la planification du gouvernement beaucoup plus que dans d’autres pays européens.

Bien qu’il soit une économie largement libéralisée, le gouvernement continue de jouer un rôle important dans l’économie: les dépenses publiques, à 56% du PIB en 2014, sont les deuxièmes plus élevées de l’Union européenne. Les conditions de travail et les salaires sont très réglementés. Le gouvernement continue de détenir des actions de sociétés dans plusieurs secteurs, dont la production et la distribution d’énergie, l’automobile, les transports et les télécommunications. Cependant, ces participations sont vendues rapidement, l’État conservant des participations essentiellement symboliques dans ces sociétés (hors transport ferroviaire et énergie).

Finances publiques[[Éditer]

Emprunts du gouvernement français (déficits budgétaires) en pourcentage du PNB, 1960-2009.

Dette publique de la France de 1978 à 2009

Composition de l’économie française (PIB) en 2016 par type de dépenses

En avril et mai 2012, la France a organisé une élection présidentielle au cours de laquelle le vainqueur François Hollande s’était opposé aux mesures d’austérité, promettant d’éliminer le déficit budgétaire de la France d’ici 2017. Le nouveau gouvernement a déclaré qu’il visait à annuler les réductions d’impôt et les exonérations fiscales récemment accordées aux riches, relever le taux d’imposition supérieur à 75% sur les revenus supérieurs à un million d’euros, ramener l’âge de la retraite à 60 ans avec une pension complète pour ceux qui ont travaillé 42 ans, restaurer 60000 emplois récemment supprimés de l’enseignement public, réglementer les augmentations de loyer; et la construction de logements sociaux supplémentaires pour les pauvres.

En juin 2012, le Parti socialiste de Hollande a remporté la majorité des voix lors des élections législatives, ce qui lui a permis de modifier la Constitution française et de permettre la promulgation immédiate des réformes promises. Les taux d’intérêt des obligations d’État françaises ont chuté de 30% pour atteindre des niveaux record,[37] moins de 50 points de base au-dessus des taux des obligations d’État allemandes.[38]

dette nationale[[Éditer]

Le gouvernement français enregistre chaque année un déficit budgétaire depuis le début des années 70. En 2019, la dette publique française atteignait 2331 milliards d’euros, soit 99,2% du PIB français.[39]

Selon les règles de l’Union européenne, les États membres sont censés limiter leur dette à 60% de la production ou réduire structurellement le ratio vers ce plafond, et enregistrer des déficits publics ne dépassant pas 3,0% du PIB.[40]

Fin 2012, les agences de notation de crédit ont averti que l’augmentation du niveau de la dette publique française risquait de compromettre la cote de crédit AAA de la France, ce qui augmentait la possibilité d’une dégradation future du crédit et d’une augmentation des coûts d’emprunt pour le gouvernement français.[41] En 2012, la France a été rétrogradée par les agences de notation Moody’s, Standard & Poor’s et Fitch à la note de crédit AA +.[42][43]

En décembre 2014, la note de crédit de la France a été encore abaissée par Fitch (et S&P) à la note de crédit AA.[44]

Le tableau suivant présente les principaux indicateurs économiques de 1980 à 2018. L’inflation inférieure à 2% est en vert.[45]

An PIB
(en bil. Euro)
PIB par habitant
(en euro)
La croissance du PIB
(réel)
Taux d’inflation
(en pourcentage)
Chômage
(en pourcentage)
Solde budgétaire
(en% du PIB)
1980 453,2 Augmentez 8,435 Augmentez 1,8% 13,1% 6,2% Diminuer – 0,4%
1981 Augmentez 511.7 Augmentez 9,470 Augmentez 1,1% Augmentation négative13,3% Augmentation négative7.4% Diminuer – 2,4%
1982 Augmentez 587.9 Augmentez 10.821 Augmentez 2,5% Augmentation négative12,0% Augmentation négative8.1% Diminuer – 2,8%
1983 Augmentez 652.8 Augmentez 11 945 Augmentez 1,2% Augmentation négative9,5% Diminution positive7.4% Diminuer – 2,5%
1984 Augmentez 709.6 Augmentez 12 927 Augmentez 1,5% Augmentation négative7,7% Augmentation négative8,5% Diminuer – 2,7%
1985 Augmentez 760.5 Augmentez 13,788 Augmentez 1,6% Augmentation négative5,8% Augmentation négative8,7% Diminuer – 2,9%
1986 Augmentez 817.8 Augmentez 14,759 Augmentez 2,4% Augmentation négative2,5% Augmentation négative8,9% Diminuer – 3,2%
1987 Augmentez 859.8 Augmentez 15,442 Augmentez 2,6% Augmentation négative3,3% Augmentation négative9.2% Diminuer – 2.0%
1988 Augmentez 929.4 Augmentez 16,607 Augmentez 4,7% Augmentation négative2,7% Diminution positive8,8% Diminuer −2.5 %
1989 Increase1,001.8 Increase17,805 Increase4.4 % Negative increase6.6 % Positive decrease8.7 % Decrease−1.8 %
1990 Increase1,058.6 Increase18,711 Increase2.9 % Increase0.3 % Positive decrease8.4 % Decrease−2.4 %
1991 Increase1,097.1 Increase19,304 Increase1.0 % Negative increase3.4 % Negative increase8.6 % Decrease−2.8 %
1992 Increase1,136.8 Increase19,906 Increase1.6 % Negative increase2.5 % Negative increase9.4 % Decrease−4.6 %
1993 Increase1,148.4 Increase20,018 Decrease−0.6 % Negative increase2.2 % Negative increase10.3 % Decrease−6.3 %
1994 Increase1,186.3 Increase20,609 Increase2.3 % Increase1.7 % Negative increase10.7 % Decrease−5.4 %
1995 Increase1,225.0 Increase21,211 Increase2.1 % Increase1.8 % Positive decrease10.5 % Decrease−5.1 %
1996 Increase1,259.0 Increase21,730 Increase1.4 % Negative increase2.1 % Negative increase10.8 % Decrease−3.9 %
1997 Increase1,299.7 Increase22,365 Increase2.3 % Increase1.3 % Negative increase10.9 % Decrease−3.6 %
1998 Increase1,358.8 Increase23.307 Increase3.6 % Increase0.7 % Positive decrease10.7 % Decrease−2.4 %
1999 Increase1,408.1 Increase24,072 Increase3.4 % Increase0.6 % Positive decrease10.4 % Decrease−1.6 %
2000 Increase1,485.3 Increase25,235 Increase3.9 % Increase1.8 % Positive decrease9.2 % Decrease−1.3 %
2001 Increase1,544.6 Increase26,026 Increase2.0 % Increase1.8 % Positive decrease8.5 % Decrease−1.4 %
2002 Increase1,594.3 Increase26,711 Increase1.1 % Increase1.9 % Positive decrease8.3 % Decrease−3.1 %
2003 Increase1,637.4 Increase27,244 Increase0.8 % Negative increase2.2 % Negative increase8.5 % Decrease−3.9 %
2004 Increase1,710.7 Increase28,274 Increase2.8 % Negative increase2.3 % Negative increase8.8 % Decrease−3.5 %
2005 Increase1,772.0 Increase29,066 Increase1.7 % Increase1.9 % Negative increase8.9 % Decrease−3.2 %
2006 Increase1,853.2 Increase30,184 Increase2.4 % Increase1.9 % Positive decrease8.8 % Decrease−2.3 %
2007 Increase1,945.7 Increase31,486 Increase2.4 % Increase1.6 % Positive decrease8.0 % Decrease−2.5 %
2008 Increase1,995.8 Increase32,121 Increase0.3 % Negative increase3.2 % Positive decrease7.5 % Decrease−3.2 %
2009 Decrease1,939.0 Decrease31,041 Decrease−2.9 % Increase0.1 % Negative increase9.1 % Decrease−7.2 %
2010 Increase1,998.4 Increase31,841 Increase1.9 % Increase1.7 % Negative increase9.3 % Decrease−6.8 %
2011 Increase2,059.3 Increase32,651 Increase2.2 % Negative increase2.3 % Positive decrease9.2 % Decrease−5.1 %
2012 Increase2,086.9 Increase32,929 Increase0.3 % Negative increase2.2 % Negative increase9.8 % Decrease−4.8 %
2013 Increase2,115.3 Increase33,208 Increase0.6 % Increase1.0 % Negative increase10.3 % Decrease−4.0 %
2014 Increase2,149.8 Increase33,575 Increase1.0 % Increase0.6 % Steady10.3 % Decrease−3.9 %
2015 Increase2,198.4 Increase34,190 Increase1.1 % Increase0.1 % Negative increase10.4 % Decrease−3.6 %
2016 Increase2,234.1 Increase34,654 Increase1.1 % Increase0.3 % Positive decrease10.0 % Decrease−3.5 %
2017 Increase2,295.1 Increase35,309 Increase2.3 % Increase1.2 % Positive decrease9.4 % Decrease−2.8 %
2018 Increase2,353.1 Increase36,355 Increase1.8 % Negative increase2.1 % Positive decrease9.1 % Decrease−2.5 %

Economic sectors[[Éditer]

Industry[[Éditer]

2006 electricity production of France

Other (1.3%)

The leading industrial sectors in France are telecommunications (including communication satellites), aerospace and defense, ship building (naval and specialist ships), pharmaceuticals, construction and civil engineering, chemicals, textiles, and automobile production.

Research and development spending is also high in France at 2.26% of GDP, the fourth-highest in the OECD.[46]

Énergie[[Éditer]

France is the world-leading country in nuclear energy, home of global energy giants Areva, EDF and GDF Suez: nuclear power now accounts for about 78% of the country’s electricity production, up from only 8% in 1973, 24% in 1980, and 75% in 1990. Nuclear waste is stored on site at reprocessing facilities.
Due to its heavy investment in nuclear power, France is the smallest emitter of carbon dioxide among the seven most industrialized countries in the world.[47]

In 2006 electricity generated in France amounted to 548.8 TWh, of which:[48]

  • 428.7 TWh (78.1%) were produced by nuclear power generation
  • 60.9 TWh (11.1%) were produced by hydroelectric power generation
  • 52.4 TWh (9.5%) were produced by fossil-fuel power generation
    • 21.6 TWh (3.9%) by coal power
    • 20.9 TWh (3.8%) by natural-gas power
    • 9.9 TWh (1.8%) by other fossil fuel generation (fuel oil and gases by-products of industry such as blast furnace gases)
  • 6.9 TWh (1.3%) were produced by other types of power generation (essentially waste-to-energy and wind turbines)
    • The electricity produced by wind turbines increased from 0.596 TWh in 2004, to 0.963 TWh in 2005, and 2.15 TWh in 2006, but this still accounts only for 0.4% of the total production of electricity (as of 2006).

In November 2004, EDF (which stands for Electricité de France), the world’s largest utility company and France’s largest electricity provider, was floated with huge success on the French stock market. Notwithstanding, the French state still retains 70% of the capital.

Other electricity providers include Compagnie nationale du Rhône (CNR) and Endesa (through SNET).

Agriculture[[Éditer]

France is the world’s sixth largest agricultural producer and EU’s leading agricultural power, accounting for about one-third of all agricultural land within the EU. In the early 1980’s, France was the leading producer of the three principal grains of wheat, barley, and maize. Back in 1983, France produced around 24.8 million tonnes, which was a long way ahead of the United Kingdom and West Germany, the next two largest wheat producers.[49]

Northern France is characterized by large wheat farms. Dairy products, pork, poultry, and apple production are concentrated in the western region. Beef production is located in central France, while the production of fruits, vegetables, and wine ranges from central to southern France. France is a large producer of many agricultural products and is currently expanding its forestry and fishery industries. The implementation of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) have resulted in reforms in the agricultural sector of the economy.

As the world’s second-largest agricultural exporter, France ranks just after the United States.[50] The destination of 49% of its exports is other EU members states. France also provides agricultural exports to many poor African countries (including its former colonies) which face serious food shortages. Wheat, beef, pork, poultry, and dairy products are the principal exports.

Exports from the United States face stiff competition from domestic production, other EU member states, and third-world countries in France. US agricultural exports to France, totaling some $600 million annually, consist primarily of soybeans and soybean products, feeds and fodders, seafood, and consumer products, especially snack foods and nuts. French exports to the United States are much more high-value products such as its cheese, processed products and its wine.

The French agricultural sector receives almost €11 billion in EU subsidies. France’s competitive advantage is mostly linked to the high quality and global renown of its produce, such as cheese and wine.

Tourism[[Éditer]

France is the world’s most popular tourist destination with more than 83.7 million foreign tourists in 2014,[2] ahead of Spain (58.5 million in 2006) and the United States (51.1 million in 2006). This figure excludes people staying less than 24 hours in France, such as northern Europeans crossing France on their way to Spain or Italy during the summer.

France is home to cities of much cultural interest (Paris being the foremost), beaches and seaside resorts, ski resorts, and rural regions that many enjoy for their beauty and tranquillity. France also attracts many religious pilgrims to Lourdes, a town in the Hautes-Pyrénées département, which hosts several million visitors a year.

According to figures from 2003, some popular tourist sites include (in visitors per year):[51] Eiffel Tower (6.2 million), Louvre Museum (5.7 million), Palace of Versailles (2.8 million), Cité des Sciences et de l’Industrie (2.6 million), Musée d’Orsay (2.1 million), Arc de Triomphe (1.2 million), Centre Pompidou (1.2 million), Mont-Saint-Michel (1 million), Château de Chambord (711,000), Sainte-Chapelle (683,000), Château du Haut-Kœnigsbourg (549,000), Puy de Dôme (500,000), Musée Picasso (441,000), Carcassonne (362,000). However, the most popular site in France is Disneyland Paris, with 9.7 million visitors in 2017 [52]

Arms industry[[Éditer]

The French arms industry’s main customer, for whom they mainly build warships, guns, nuclear weapons and equipment, is the French government.

Record high defence expenditure (currently[[when?] at €35 billion), which was considerably increased under the government of Prime Minister Jean-Pierre Raffarin, goes largely to the French arms industries.[[citation requise]

During the 2000–2015 period, France was the fourth largest weapons exporter in the world[53][54]

French manufacturers export great quantities of weaponry to Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Brazil, Greece, India, Pakistan, Taiwan, Singapore and many others.

It was reported that in 2015, French arms sales internationally amounted to 17.4 billion U.S. dollars,[55] more than double the figure of 2014.[56] Vice News explained that “While the United Kingdom has lapsed somewhat in this regard, France has maintained a high-level of production of military equipment for land, air, and sea defense – an expensive approach that relies on the export of arms and technology.”[57]

Transport[[Éditer]

Transportation in France relies on one of the densest networks in the world with 146 km of road and 6.2 km of rail lines per 100 km2. It is built as a web with Paris at its center.[58] The highly subsidised rail transport network makes up a relatively small portion of travel, most of which is done by car. However the high-speed TGV trains make up a large proportion of long-distance travel, partially because intercity buses were prevented from operating until 2015.

France also boasts a number of seaports and harbours, including Bayonne, Bordeaux, Boulogne-sur-Mer, Brest, Calais, Cherbourg-Octeville, Dunkerque, Fos-sur-Mer, La Pallice, Le Havre, Lorient, Marseille, Nantes, Nice, Paris, Port-la-Nouvelle, Port-Vendres, Roscoff, Rouen, Saint-Nazaire, Saint-Malo, Sète, Strasbourg and Toulon. There are approximately 470 airports in France and by a 2005 estimate, there are three heliports. 288 of the airports have paved runways, with the remaining 199 being unpaved. The national carrier of France is Air France, a full service global airline which flies to 20 domestic destinations and 150 international destinations in 83 countries (including Overseas France) across all 6 major continents.

Labour market[[Éditer]

According to a 2011 report by the American Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), France’s GDP per capita at purchasing power parity is similar to that of the UK, with just over US$35,000 per head.[59] To explain why French per capita GDP is lower than that of the United States, the economist Paul Krugman stated that “French workers are roughly as productive as US workers”, but that the French have allegedly a lower workforce participation rate and “when they work, they work fewer hours”. According to Krugman, the difference is due to the French making “different choices about retirement and leisure”.[60]

Keynesian economists sought out different solutions to the unemployment issue in France, and their theories led to the introduction of the 35-hour workweek law in 1999. Between 2004 and 2008, the government attempted to combat unemployment with supply-side reforms, but was met with fierce resistance;[62] le contrat nouvelle embauche et le contrat première embauche (which allowed more flexible contracts) were of particular concern, and both were eventually repealed.[63] The Sarkozy government used the revenu de solidarité active (in-work benefits) to redress the allegedly negative effect du revenu minimum d’insertion (unemployment benefits which do not depend on previous contributions, unlike normal unemployment benefits in France) on the incentive to accept even jobs which are insufficient to earn a living.[64]

French employment rates for 15–64 years is one of the lowest of the OECD countries: in 2012, only 71% of the French population aged 15–64 years were in employment, compared to 74% in Japan, 77% in the UK, 73% in the US and 77% in Germany.[65] This gap is due to the low employment rate for 15–24 years old: 38% in 2012, compared to 47% in the OECD. Neoliberal economists attribute the low employment rate, particularly evident among young people, to allegedly high minimum wages that would prevent low productivity workers from easily entering the labour market.[66]

A December 2012 New York Times article reported on an allegedly “floating generation” in France that formed part of the 14 million unemployed young Europeans documented by the Eurofound research agency.[67] In the same article, Anne Sonnet, a senior economist studying unemployment at the OECD claimed that nearly two million young people in France had given up looking for employment at that time, while French labour minister Michel Sapin said that 82 percent of people hired were only on temporary contracts. Sapin further explained that, in his opinion, the challenge at that time was to create a more flexible system, in which greater trust existed between unions and companies, and “partial unemployment” was accommodated during difficult periods. The so-called floating generation was attributed to an allegedly dysfunctional system: “an elitist educational tradition that does not integrate graduates into the work force, a rigid labour market that is hard to enter for newcomers, and a tax system that makes it expensive for companies to hire full-time employees and both difficult and expensive to lay them off”.[68] In July 2013, the unemployment rate for France was 11%.[69]

In early April 2014, employers’ federations and unions negotiated an agreement with technology and consultancy employers, as employees had been experiencing an extension of their work time through smartphone communication outside of official working hours. Under a new, legally binding labour agreement, around 250,000 employees will avoid handling work-related matters during their leisure time and their employers will, in turn, refrain from engaging with staff during this time.[70]

Everyday, about 80,000 French citizens are commuting to work in neighbouring Luxembourg, making it the biggest cross-border workforce group in the whole of the European Union.[71] They are attracted by much higher wages for the different job groups than in their own country and the lack of skilled labour in the booming Luxembourgish economy.

External trade[[Éditer]

France is the second-largest trading nation in Europe (after Germany).[72] Its foreign trade balance for goods had been in surplus from 1992 until 2001, reaching $25.4 billion (25.4 G$) in 1998; however, the French balance of trade was hit by the economic downturn, and went into the red in 2000, reaching a US$15bn deficit in 2003. Total trade for 1998 amounted to $730 billion, or 50% of GDP—imports plus exports of goods and services. Trade with European Union countries accounts for 60% of French trade.

In 1998, US–France trade stood at about $47 billion – goods only. According to French trade data, US exports accounted for 8.7% – about $25 billion – of France’s total imports. US industrial chemicals, aircraft and engines, electronic components, telecommunications, computer software, computers and peripherals, analytical and scientific instrumentation, medical instruments and supplies, broadcasting equipment, and programming and franchising are particularly attractive to French importers.

The principal French exports to the US are aircraft and engines, beverages, electrical equipment, chemicals, cosmetics, luxury products and perfume. France is the ninth-largest trading partner of the US.

Régions economy[[Éditer]

Nominal GDP per capita, 2015 Eurostat

The economic disparity between French regions is not as high as that in other European countries such as the UK, Italy or Germany, and higher than in countries like Sweden or Denmark, or even Spain. However, Europe’s wealthiest and second largest regional economy, Ile-de-France (the region surrounding Paris), has long profited from the capital city’s economic hegemony.

The most important régions are Île-de-France (world’s 4th and Europe 2nd wealthiest and largest regional economy), Rhône-Alpes (Europe’s 5th largest regional economy thanks to its services, high-technologies, chemical industries, wines, tourism), Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur (services, industry, tourism and wines), Nord-Pas-de-Calais (European transport hub, services, industries) and Pays de la Loire (green technologies, tourism). Regions like Alsace, which has a rich past in industry (machine tool) and currently stands as a high income service-specialized region, are very wealthy without ranking very high in absolute terms.

The rural areas are mainly in Auvergne, Limousin, and Centre-Val de Loire, and wine production accounts for a significant proportion of the economy in Aquitaine (Bordeaux (or claret)), Burgundy, and champagne produced in Champagne-Ardennes.

Rank Région GDP
(in million euros, 2009)
GDP per capita
(euros, 2009)
GDP
(in million US Dollars, 2009)
GDP per capita
(US Dollars, 2009)
1 Île-de-France 552,052 51,101 769,705 69,973
2 Rhône-Alpes 181,810 29,420 253,491 41,019
3 Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur 138,002 27,855 192,411 38,837
4 Nord-Pas de Calais 96,839 24,025 135,019 33,497
5 Pays de la Loire 94,032 26,481 131,105 36,921
6 Aquitaine 85,693 26,710 119,478 37,241
7 Bretagne 81,632 25,739 113,816 35,887
8 Midi-Pyrénées 76,522 26,628 106,692 37,126
9 Centre-Val de Loire 65,173 25,571 90,868 35,653
dix Languedoc-Roussillon 60,523 22,984 84,385 32,046
11 Lorraine 55,396 23,653 77,237 32,978
12 Alsace 50,701 27,322 70,690 38,094
13 Upper Normandy 48,555 26,599 67,698 37,086
14 Picardie 43,725 22,894 60,964 31,920
15 Poitou-Charentes 42,379 24,046 59,087 33,526
16 Burgundy 41,805 25,516 58,287 35,576
17 Champagne-Ardenne 35,779 26,768 49,885 37,322
18 Lower Normandy 34,869 23,737 48,617 33,096
19 Auvergne 33,174 24,680 46,253 34,410
20 Franche-Comté 28,083 24,042 39,155 33,521
21 Limousin 17,509 23,637 24,412 32,956
22 la Corse 7,279 23,800 10,149 33,183

Source : INSEE. Source : fxtop.com.

Departments economy and cities[[Éditer]

Departmental income inequalities[[Éditer]

Paris is France’s largest urban economy (and the world’s third)

In terms of income, important inequalities can be observed among the French départements.

According to the 2008 statistics of the INSEE, the Yvelines is the highest income department of the country with an average income of €4,750 per month. Hauts-de-Seine comes second, Essonne third, Paris fourth, Seine-et Marne fifth. Île-de-France is the wealthiest region in the country with an average income of €4,228 per month (and is also the wealthiest region in Europe) compared to €3,081 at the national level. Alsace comes second, Rhône-Alpes third, Picardy fourth, and Upper Normandy fifth.

The poorest parts of France are the French overseas departments, French Guiana being the poorest department with an average household income of €1,826. In Metropolitan France it is Creuse in the Limousin region which comes bottom of the list with an average household income of €1,849 per month.[74]

Urban income inequalities[[Éditer]

Huge inequalities can also be found among cities.
In the Paris metropolitan area, significant differences exist between the higher standard of living of Paris Ouest and lower standard of living in areas in the northern banlieues of Paris such as Seine-Saint-Denis.

For cities of over 50,000 inhabitants, Neuilly-sur-Seine, a western suburb of Paris, is the wealthiest city in France with an average household income of €5,939, and 35% earning more than €8,000 per month.[75]

But within Paris, four arrondissements surpass wealthy Neuilly-sur-Seine in household income: the 6th, the 7th, the 8th and the 16th; the 8th “arrondissement” being the wealthiest district in France (the other three following it closely as 2nd, 3rd and 4th wealthiest ones).

Aperçu[[Éditer]

In 2010, the French had an estimated wealth of US$14.0 trillion for a population of 63 million.[76]

  • In terms of aggregate wealth, the French are the wealthiest Europeans, accounting for more than a quarter of wealthiest European households.[77] Globally, the French nation ranks fourth-wealthiest.[78][79]
  • In 2010, wealth per French adult was a little higher than $290,000, down from a pre-crisis high of $300,000 in 2007. According to this ratio, French are the wealthiest in Europe. The tax on wealth is paid by 1.1M of people in France, the payment of this tax starts when a €1.3M of assets is reached (there is a discount on the principal residence value).
  • Almost every French household has at least $1,000 in assets.[80] Proportionally, there are twice as many French with assets of over $10,000 and four times as many French with assets of over $100,000 than the world average.[81]
  • The French are also among the least indebted populations in the developed world with personal debt accounting for “little more than 10% of household assets”.[82]

Millionaires[[Éditer]

France has the third highest number of millionaires in Europe as of 2017. There were 1.617 million millionaire households (measured in terms of US dollars) living in France in 2017, behind the UK (2.225M) and Germany (1.637).[83]

The wealthiest man in France is the LVMH CEO and owner Bernard Arnault.

Voir également[[Éditer]

  • Economy of France in French Guiana, French Polynesia, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, New Caledonia, Réunion, Saint Barthélemy, Saint Martin, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Wallis and Futuna
  • Taxation in France
  • Economic history of France
  • Economy of Paris
  • Poverty in France
Général

Notes and references[[Éditer]

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  78. ^ Rankings: 1st: United States with $54.6 trillion for 318 million inhabitants; 2nd: Japan with $21 trillion for 127 million inhabitants; 3rd: China with $16.5 trillion for 1.331 billion inhabitants; 4th: France with $14.0 trillion for 63 million inhabitants.
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Liens externes[[Éditer]